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Basics Of Cloud Computing



  • A short history of Cloud Computing
  • What is Cloud Computing
  • Why we need Cloud Computing? and its Benefits 


  • Introduction to Virtualization
  • Role of  Virtualization in Cloud
  • What is Hypervisor 
  • Important terms should know in virtualization and cloud

Types of Cloud Computing 

A small History of Cloud Computing

  • In 1999, started providing applications to users using a website. The apps were delivered to enterprises over the internet,
  • Since 2002, Amazon started Amazon Web Services AWS, providing services like storage S3 – Simple Storage Service, computation. they only starting with the launch of the Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2: Virtual Server Machine) in 2006 a truly commercial service open to everybody existed.
  • In 2009, Google also started to provide cloud computing enterprise applications Gmail, Drive and now evolved as G-suite.
  • In 2009, Microsoft launched Windows Azure, and also other companies like Salesforce, Oracle, Alibaba have all joined the providing solutions. 

What is Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is the on-demand delivery of computing power, database storage, applications, and other IT resources through a cloud services platform via the Internet using virtualization technology.

Cloud Deployment Model

  • Private Cloud: The deployment of resources on-premises, using virtualization and resource management tools, networks are sometimes called the private cloud.
  • Public Cloud: A cloud-based resources are fully deployed in the cloud and all parts of the application run in the cloud provider datacenter. 
  • Hybrid Cloud: A hybrid cloud is a type of computing environment which combines both public cloud and a private cloud by collaborating data and applications to be shared between them.

Why we need Cloud Computing? and Its Benefits

  • Flexibility – Easy Scale-up & Scale down as business growth.
  • Disaster recovery – Reducing the cost of creating a DR setup.
  • Cap-Ex Free -  Only Op-ex  (Pay as you go, model, Monthly bill cycle is available)
  • Work from anywhere – Able to access from multiple locations & Multiple organizations globally.
  • Security – Lots of security services provided by Cloud Service provider, also certified by many international certification bodies.
  • Competitiveness – Major Cloud service providing companies AWS, Azure, Google Cloud, IBM, Oracle, Salesforce, Alibaba cloud.
  • Environmentally friendly - At least 30% less energy consumption and carbon emissions than using on-premise servers.
  • Trade capital expense for variable expense – Instead of having to invest heavily in data centers and servers before we know how we are going to use them, we can pay only when we consume computing resources, and pay only for how much we consume.
  • Benefit from massive economies of scale – By using cloud computing, we can achieve a lower variable cost than we can get on our own. Because usage from hundreds of thousands of customers is aggregated in the cloud, providers such as AWS can achieve higher economies of scale, which translates into lower pay-as-you-go prices. 
  • Stop guessing capacity – Eliminate guessing on our infrastructure capacity needs. We can access as much or as little capacity as we need, and scale up and down as required with only a few minutes’ notices.
  • Increase speed and agility – In a cloud computing environment, new IT resources are only a click away, which means that we reduce the time to make those resources available to our developers from weeks to just minutes. This results in a dramatic increase in agility for the organization.
  • Stop spending money running and maintaining data centers – We can focus on our own customers & Projects, rather than on the heavy lifting of racking, stacking, and powering servers.
  • Go global in minutes – Easily deploy our application in multiple regions around the world with just a few clicks. This means we can provide lower latency and a better experience for our customers at minimal cost & effort.

What is Virtualization

In simple words, Creating multiple computer resources virtually in single hardware is called Virtualization.

Before Virtualization

  • Single OS image can run per machine at a time
  • Software and hardware tightly coupled 
  • Running multiple applications on the same machine and it may create conflict
  • Underutilized resources
  • Inflexible and costly infrastructure

After Virtualization

  • We can run multiple OS on a single machine
  • Hardware-independence of operating system and applications
  • One OS issue will not affect other OS and Application
  • We can manage OS and application as a single unit by virtual machines
  • Backup and restore is easy

Role of Virtualization in Cloud Computing

  • Virtualization is one of the major components of cloud computing that helps the emergence of cloud computing.  
  • To understand cloud computing it is important to understand the concepts like network virtualization, storage virtualization, etc,. 
  • The main components of virtualization in the cloud are virtual machines because all of the operating systems and applications are inside them. They are like a container which isolated and separated from each other, even in the same physical host.
Cloud Computing has been underlying on several types of virtualization they are

Example of Virtualization

  • We can run multiple servers/services/ OS in single hardware independently.
  • For Example, We can run DB server, Application server, Email server, File server and Print server on the same physical machine using Virtualization.

What is Hypervisor

In simple words, a hypervisor is computer software, firmware or hardware that creates and runs virtual machines. 

  • A computer on which a hypervisor runs one or more virtual machines is called a host machine, and each virtual machine is called a guest machine. 
  • The hypervisor presents the guest operating systems with a virtual operating platform and manages the execution of the guest operating systems. 
  • Multiple instances of a variety of operating systems may share the virtualized hardware resources: for example, Linux, Windows, and macOS instances can all run on a single physical x86 machine.  
The hypervisor is classified into two types:
  1. Baremetal - Hypervisor lying on the hardware
  2. Hosted - Hypervisor lying on the Operating system


  • Backup is the process of making a second copy of data that can be restored to use at any time if the primary copy becomes lost or unusable. 
  • Backups usually comprise a point-in-time copy of primary data taken on a repeated cycle – daily, monthly or weekly.

A backup may be required in the following scenarios:

  • Logical corruption
  • User error
  • Hardware failure
  • Hardware loss


Snapshot is a point-in-time copy of data created from a set of markers pointing to stored data and is effectively a backup. Snapshots provide a variety of approaches that can supplement backup and provide rapidly accessible copies to which is it possible to roll back.


Failover is the constant capability to automatically and seamlessly switch to a highly reliable backup. This can be operated in a redundant manner or in a standby operational mode upon the failure of a primary server, application, system or another primary system component. 

There are two types of options to overcome failover
  1. High Availability 
  2. Fault Tolerance

High Availability - If the Host / Server failed the running virtual machines are moved to other hosts with down, we need power up manually

Fault Tolerance - If the Host / Server failed virtual machines are moved to other  hosts without downtime, no need power up manually

Types of Cloud Computing

Types are classified by how the types of services are divided and provided by a cloud provider

Here major types are mentioned

On-premises - All the hardware and software components are Managed by the Company in their own Datacenter

Infrastructure as a Service IaaS - Virtualization, CPU(Server / Processor), Storage, Networking are managed by the cloud provider and we should configure OS and Application

Platform as a Service PaaS - Except application part all the Hardware and Software components are managed by the Cloud Provider and we should deploy our application / Code.

Software as a Service SaaS - All the components are managed by the cloud provider and we should use their application

Anything as a service (XaaS) is a term that describes a broad category of services related to cloud computing. With cloud computing technologies, cloud providers offer companies more different kinds of services

For example:
  • Database as a service (DBaaS)
  • Storage-as-a-Service(SaaS)
  • Desktop as a service (DaaS)
  • Communications as a service (CaaS)
  • Monitoring as a service (MaaS)


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Tech Enthusiast, Tech Author and System Engineer with 3.10 years of experience with different stages of the IT Infrastructure, Multi-Cloud, Strong background in management and leadership.